Acneiform rash is the most common side effect of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors (EGFRis). EGFR belongs to a family (ErbB) of tyrosine kinase receptors which regulate tumor cell differentiation, survival, and proliferation.

What is the most likely cause of skin rashes in patients taking EGFR inhibitors?

Acneiform rash is the most common side effect of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors (EGFRis). EGFR belongs to a family (ErbB) of tyrosine kinase receptors which regulate tumor cell differentiation, survival, and proliferation.

Is tyrosine kinase reversible?

Aim: The small-molecule EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors afatinib, gefitinib, erlotinib, dacomitinib and AZD-9291 were developed to treat advanced NSCLC, and are classed as reversible (erlotinib, gefitinib) or irreversible (afatinib, dacomitinib, AZD-9291).

Are tyrosine kinase inhibitors toxic?

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are anticancer drugs with a lesser toxicity than classical chemotherapeutic agents but still with a narrow therapeutic window. While hepatotoxicity is known for most TKIs, underlying mechanisms remain mostly unclear.

What does tyrosine do to the body?

Tyrosine is in all tissues of the human body and in most of its fluids. It helps the body build proteins in your body, and produce enzymes, thyroid hormones, and the skin pigment melanin. It also helps the body produce neurotransmitters that help nerve cells communicate.

What drugs inhibit tyrosine kinase?

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) are effective in the targeted treatment of various malignancies. Imatinib was the first to be introduced into clinical oncology, and it was followed by drugs such as gefitinib, erlotinib, sorafenib, sunitinib, and dasatinib.

How do you treat papulopustular rash?

The typical papulopustular rash occurs within 1 to 3 weeks of starting treatment, and is fully developed at weeks 3 to 5. Usually, these skin toxicities are treated with both topical (moisturizers, emollients, topical antibiotics/steroids) and/or systemic measures (oral antibiotics, steroids and antihistaminic drugs).

What causes papulopustular rash?

The inhibition of EGFR in epithelial cells disturbs the normal function of keratinocytes, leading to increased production of chemokines that recruit inflammatory cells, such as leukocytes and neutrophils, and resulting in an inflammatory response that manifests as a papulopustular rash.

How is EGFR mutation detected?

For diagnosis of your tumor, you will need a conventional tissue biopsy. In addition, blood tests for circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), also called liquid biopsies, may be done to detect EGFR mutations in the tumor that can predict potential responsiveness or resistance to targeted therapies.

How does receptor tyrosine kinase get inactivated?

The inactivation is caused by oxidation of Cys-277, which leads to the formation of a disulfide homodimer. Furthermore, this mechanism is uniquely conserved in part of the Src family and the FGFR family. These findings provide a distinct mechanism for ROS to directly regulate signaling by Src and FGFR kinases.

Can you have too much tyrosine?

Most people do not need to take L-tyrosine because their bodies have a mechanism for regulating tyrosine supply. If you do not consume enough tyrosine from food, your body can make more. If you consume too much, your body will break it down and get rid of it.

Can skin rash predict EGFR tyrosine kinase kinase inhibitor response in lung cancer?

Skin rash could predict the response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and the prognosis for patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 2013; 8 :e55128.

Do tyrosine kinase inhibitors increase the risk of cutaneous reactions?

Cutaneous reactions, one of the most frequently observed adverse effects associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, can significantly affect patients’ quality of life and drug adherence and represent a major therapeutic challenge to maximizing the efficacy of targeted cancer therapy.

Is there a treatment for skin rash associated with EGFR-TKIs?

Team Management of Skin Rash Associated with Use of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors The rash team management approach may be useful for patients treated with EGFR-TKIs. Specific QOL evaluation tools for the assessment of the effects of a team approach for rash management should be developed.

What is EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor?

Skin problems and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition is a good target for the treatment of lung, colon, pancreatic and head and neck cancers. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor was first approved for the treatment of advanced lung cancer in 2002.