the chief administrative and judicial officer

What does Alcalde mean?

the chief administrative and judicial officer

Who built the 21 missions in California?


What was a hardship faced by Native Americans in the missions?

Local tribes were relocated and conscripted into forced labor on the mission, stretching from San Diego to San Francisco. Disease, starvation, over work and torture decimated these tribes.

What is a Presidio mean?

: a garrisoned place especially : a military post or fortified settlement in areas currently or originally under Spanish control.

What was the first mission in Texas?

The first mission in Texas was established in 1632 near present-day San Angelo. It was a follow-up effort to an initial 1629 missionary trip to the area at the request of the Jumano Indians, which was the first journey into Texas specifically for Christian evangelization.

What is the difference between a presidio and a mission?

1. What is the difference between a mission and a presidio? The difference between a mission and a presidio is that a mission is a religious settlement and a presidio is a Spanish military and the presidio was an out post that protected land.

Is the Presidio still a military base?

It was continually used as a military base by the Spanish, Mexican, and American armies over the course of 218 years. The Presidio remained under US Army control until 1994, when it was transferred to the National Park Service.

Why did the mission Presidio system fail?

In 1758 about 2,000 Comanches, Wichitas, and Tonkawas came in search of the Lipans. They burned down the mission and killed most of the missionaries. The mission was never rebuilt, but the presidio remained for a number of years. The Spanish could not keep the Lipan protected from attack and the mission failed.

When was the last mission built?


What are the 4 Presidios in California?

Four coast batteries and four presidios defended Upper California. Those of San Diego, founded in 1769; Monterey in 1770; San Francisco in 1776; and Santa Barbara in 1780. After the year 1770, the infantry in all these garrisons were replaced by dragoons, called companias de cuera (companies with leather armor).

What is an example of a Presidio?

Presidio sentence example. The establishment of a presidio at Tucson in 1776 marks its beginning as a Spanish settlement. Their own farms and settlements, save in the immediate vicinity of the presidio , were often plundered and abandoned, and such settlement as there was was confined to the Santa Cruz valley.

Were the Spanish successful in colonizing Texas?

In early settlements across the state, the Spanish engaged in a power struggle with local groups, with neither side ever declaring full victory over the other. The missions and presidios were, however, a success for the Spanish crown in other important ways.

What were their chores on the mission?

Most of the men went to the fields to tend to the crops or help with the animals. The woman stayed inside the mission and did all the domestic jobs, such as weaving cloth, making clothes, and burning down fat to make soap and candles. Children usually helped out with these chores.

What does Vaquero mean?

worker of cows

What was the main purpose of a presidio?

A presidio protected a mission. Presidios were forts that offered safety from unfriendly Indians. They helped soldiers to control Indians in the missions and catch Indians that ran away.

What did Indians do at missions?

They were put to work tending mission farms, livestock, and facilities and discouraged—in some cases prohibited—from leaving their home mission. Many were converted; many died of European diseases to which they had no immunity; and many became dependent upon the missions for subsistence and shelter.

What was life in a mission like?

Daily life in the missions was not like anything the Native Texans had experienced. Most had routine jobs to perform every day, and the mission priests introduced them to new ways of life and ideas. The priests supervised all activities in the mission. They would often physically punish uncooperative natives.

What caused most of the missions in Texas to fail?

1. Native Americans did not want to be converted to Catholicism. 2. The Plains tribes resented the missionaries and their intrusion on their hunting grounds.

Why was the bell an important part of mission life?

In olden times, bells were vitally important to daily life at any mission. The bells were rung at mealtimes, to call the Mission residents to work and to religious services, during births and funerals, as well as to signal the approach of a ship or returning missionary, etc.

When did Spain own Texas?

Spanish Texas

Pre-Columbian Texas
Spanish Texas 1690–1821
Mexican Texas 1821–1836
Republic of Texas 1836–1845
Statehood 1845–1860

What skills did the Padres teach the Native Americans?

The padres taught the Native American converts the Spanish language, a new set of craft skills, the religion Christianity, and European and Christian social customs.

What are Spanish forts called?

What is a Spanish fort called? a presidio.

What is Cavanes?

masculine noun. 1. ( Philippine unit of measurement) a. cavan.

What is the meaning of convert?

to change (something) into a different form or properties; transmute; transform. to cause to adopt a different religion, political doctrine, opinion, etc.: to convert the heathen.

What is Caidas?

caída f (plural caídas) fall (act of falling) crash (of a computer)